Atlantic Salmon: While there are five types of Pacific salmon, there is only one Atlantic variety.Atlantic Salmon is endangered in the wild, so virtually all of it is now farmed. Boosts immunity. Atlantic salmon The Atlantic salmon has large black spots on the gill cover. NataBene/Getty Images, Credit: While they can get up to 23 or 24 pounds in size, Cohos tend to be smaller, making them a great pick for cooking whole. “The traditional Native American cooking technique for this area is to hang the fish by the collar on a cross and lean it over the fire to slow smoke it,” says Portland-based chef Doug Adams, of Bullard. The natural color of salmon results from carotenoidpigments, largely astaxanthinand canthaxanthinin the flesh. Salmon is a great alternative to red meat because it’s a nutrient-dense food that can help raise good cholesterol levels. © Copyright 2021 Meredith Corporation. It’s one of the rarest species—in 2016, a mere 11,862,243-pound of King salmon were caught in U.S. waters compared to 287,251,862-pound of Sockeye—which is why it’s so damn pricey. Yes, it has a lot of the same nutrients (proteins and omega fatty acids) that the flesh does. Today, "Wild" salmon has lost it's "wildness" due to the dams in the NW. If you're looking to stick to wild salmon, you're going to want to go with Pacific salmon, of which there are five types: King, Sockeye, Coho, Pink, and Chum. If eating healthier is one of your goals this year, then check out this ultimate guide to how to buy, store, and cook salmon. Eating healthy unsaturated fats, like those found in salmon, has been shown to improve cholesterol levels. The latter tends to be found in fish caught in Northern British Columbia and Southeast Alaska. Get my essential cooking techniques that I learned in culinary school. 1.1 Norwegian salmon From Norway The meat of the Norwegian salmon is firm and orange in color. In 2017, it was the highest value commercial seafood species, equating to $688 million in revenues. Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. “It’s incredibly variable, which to me, is what makes working with wild fish so intriguing and special,” he says. With a pale- to medium-red flesh, lower fat content, and relatively small size (generally around eight pounds), it’s most prized for its roe. King salmon caught from prestige rivers like Copper or Columbia Rivers can easily fetch $50 a pound retail. Salmon is versatile, meaty, easy to cook and particularly heart-healthy, due to its high level of omega-3 fatty acids. (Mercury is not a concern in either wild or farmed salmon.) But it’s best known for the roe, which is fish eggs found in the salmon’s belly. There are plenty of fish in the sea, and we're not talking about your dating prospects. Types of Salmon. Unsustainable practices may involve pesticides, antibiotics, crowded environments, and other chemicals. The pink-orange flesh looks remarkably similar to Atlantic salmon filets, but they can grow to over 50-pounds. “They spend more time at sea growing and eating,” says Matt Stein, chief seafood officer at King’s Seafood Company. The lushest fresh salmon, king is the highest in fat and usually the most expensive, prized for its silken, melting texture, which is almost like smoked salmon. Like steak, it’s important to temper King salmon filets on the counter 30 minutes to an hour before cooking and allow it to rest when it comes off the heat. Again, ask questions. And it costs less, too. The first thing to know about the different types of salmon is that they come from both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and salmon can be farm-raised or wild-caught. Sockeye, coho and king salmon have the deepest color orange whereas pink and chum salmon (most often canned) are the lightest. That wide range does not equate to an abundance of King Salmon. Eagles, hawks, orcas, seals, sharks and sea lions often eat adult salmon. “They’re going to be a bit more loaded with Omega 3’s, which usually translates to fattiness and flavor.”. When it comes to farm-raised salmon, there was likely color added. Also known as king salmon, it’s the largest type of salmon from the pacific [source]. An appropriate parity of omega-3 and omega-6 is one generally amazing approach to keep up a sound living, and eating salmon is a simple and delectable approach towards keeping up that balance. “They’re like little eight pound footballs,” says Stein. Many farmed Atlantic salmon are given feed with astaxanthin and, in some instances, a manufactured pigment called canthaxanthin, to turn their flesh orange. The presence of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin A, and selenium in salmon can strengthen the immune system. What to know: Small, lower fat, delicious roe. The latter tends to result in healthier, happier fish with more nutrients. Dagny Willis/Getty Images, Credit: When you see fresh salmon in the case at your supermarket, it can be misleading. Sockeye salmon is a Pacific variety recognizable by its deep red color, fatty texture, and strong smell (though it should never be too fishy). Can you tell the difference between your King and Chinook? The most common Atlantic salmon in Thailand can be divided into the 3 types below. Food and Wine presents a new network of food pros delivering the most cookable recipes and delicious ideas online. When salmon return to fresh water to spawn, bears and eagles are their most common predators. eyecrave/Getty Images, Credit: Cimarusti recommends cooking Sockeye fillets (or any salmon filets) on a hot, well-oiled grill, brushed on both sides with a whisper-thin layer of mayonnaise, seasoned with salt and pepper, starting with the skin side down first. At the Yukon River, for example, where they start running earlier than the more highly sought-after species, fisherman have been increasingly starting to handle Keta in the same way they do their pricier Kings and Sockeye, processing them for their filets rather than canned meat. So definitely stock up on the salmon. “The color isn’t great for a fresh fish case (that’s a bit judgemental for me to say), but they eat quite nice.”. Swap out red meat for salmon a few nights a week and you’ll be wracking up omega 3s, B vitamins, antioxidants, potassium, and even selenium which benefits your bone health. This is farm-raised Atlantic salmon. Humans are the biggest consumer and threat to salmon. Read labels and track down where exactly it comes from to make sure it was sustainably farmed. Vaccines and better husbandry have greatly reduced diseases.”, And it’s actually affordable and available for wide segments of the population who can’t splurge on $50 per pound Copper River King Salmon. There’s a reason this species is at the top of the list and earned itself the royal moniker: King salmon is considered by many to be the best salmon money can buy. The flavorful meat and thick filets make it one of the most prized among chefs and home cooks. So, there are six types of Salmon in North America: five Pacific Salmon, one Atlantic Salmon. A slow cooker can can take your comfort food to the next level. Like most other animal proteins, you can grill salmon or bake salmon. Wild Atlantic salmon is no longer commercially available—what you find in stores and on restaurant menus is all farm-raised—but small, endangered populations still live in watersheds that drain into both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Salmon is mild and mostly neutral in flavor, but it packs heavy punches in the health department. As a result, most of the commercially available chum salmon for food comes from Alaska. “It can be almost custardy with so much fat and so much foundational flavor,” says Stein. Other fish also prey upon them. Jessica GavinPublished on September 2, 2020. “There’s a grower in Norway with amazing, off-the-charts lusciousness of fat.”. Suffice it to say, the anadromous Steelhead (like salmon, it's born in freshwater, migrates to saltwater, then heads back to its freshwater birthplace to spawn) falls under the same category as salmon. It’s not a lie; it’s just not the whole truth. Do your research. It’s a smaller breed with less fat. But salmon that was flash-frozen right after it was caught to preserve freshness, and then shipped to a store to be defrosted and sold, is also sometimes marketed as fresh salmon. All Rights Reserved. Those tend to be the most popular choices. Often ringing in at more than half the price of King salmon, wild Steelhead can be picked up for a steal. Meanwhile, not all wild-caught salmon are treated equally either. Ranging in hue from pink to orange with a mild flavor, farm-raised salmon is available year-round, often ringing in at right around $13 a pound. According to the Environmental Defense Fund, salmon is mostly wild-caught in Alaska, Washington, and Oregon from the Pacific ocean. “One of my favorite runs is Quinault River,” says Cimarusti, who gets his pick direct from the Quinault Indian Nation. While those aforementioned runs get a lot of press, many chefs, like L.A.-based, James Beard Award-winner Michael Cimarusti (Providence and Connie & Ted’s), prefer some of the lesser-known areas. The three popular types of wild Alaskan salmon are king salmon (chinook salmon), silverbite (chum salmon), and sockeye salmon (red salmon). According to scientists, the pink salmon is the smallest of the Pacific salmon species whose numbers seem to be thriving. And there are a wide variety of health benefits you reap if you eat salmon every day. Farm-raised Atlantic salmon has gotten a lot of flack over the years for a myriad of concerns, ranging from antibiotics and pollution to lack of diversity in the look, flavor, and texture of the meat. Says Stein, “It’s a great product with great flavor, and it’s approachable in price.”, Credit: Each species has slightly different characteristics , but in general, salmon has firm texture with flesh that is red to orange in … Other recommended options are Farmed Faroe Island Salmon, Fresh Farmed SAIKOU Mt. Its medium fat content gives it a mild, subtle flavor that is less in-your-face. But you can also broil it to get it a little crispy and carmelized (which is great for any sauces or marinades you may be using). It’s no surprise, given the adoring title, that Chum salmon has been getting the short end of the stick for quite some time. Atlantic salmon falls under the Salmo genera, which also includes brown trout. Chinook Salmon is the biggest fish in … There’s also sushi-grade salmon which is flash-frozen in order to prevent harmful bacteria and kill parasites so that it’s safe to consume raw. Significantly smaller than Kings, not as fatty and generally leaner, full-grown Sockeyes start around five or six pounds on up to 15. While the practice has been criticized as unsustainable in the past, it just depends on where it comes from. Cook Salmon, and Farmed Canadian Salmon to name a few. What to know: Light-colored, mild, low in fat, small. Plus, it doesn’t take long to cook, whether you bake, grill, or pan-fry it. derketta/Getty Images, Credit: Research shows eating salmon daily prevents ADHD symptoms and can boost academic performance [6]. And it costs less, too. Large salmon will feed on herring, krill and other types of fish. Chum salmon goes by several alternate names such as ‘dog salmon’, ‘keta’, and ‘silverbrite,’ and it is native to the Pacific ocean. More fishermen are also starting to process chum filets, but it’s not as common. What to know: It's rich, high in fat, and big. It will crisp up nicely when you pan-roast, pan-fry or grill your salmon. Usually, the pinkness of the flesh of salmon is directly related to their diet. It’s lean and has a mild flavor. Some of its well-known benefits are: You’ll also readily find sockeye salmon, which has a rich color and taste, as well as a firm texture. While it's been one of the salmon underdogs for quite some time, there’s been a slight sea change for Keta salmon over recent years, as fisherman have started handling them with more respect and care. It’s usually leaner than both king salmon and silver salmon. “They are calmer, more efficient, more disease resistant, grow faster and have higher fillet yields among other traits,” says Mike Rust, NOAA Fisheries Office of Aquaculture. Boost your salmon vocabulary and learn the difference between King, Sockeye, Coho, and more. Plus, it’s tasty!An average 3-ounce fillet of cooked Atlantic salmon contains 23 grams of protein and 6 grams of fa… There’s also an argument for sustainably farmed salmon that’s been frozen over unsustainably farmed salmon in the case. MyNatara/Getty Images, A Guide to Every Type of Salmon You Can Buy. All Pacific salmon and Rainbow Trout—which includes Steelhead (a.k.a Ocean Trout)—fall under Oncorhynchus. “You can just stuff Cohos full of herbs and cook the whole thing on the grill.”. It holds up well on the grill and when pan-roasted in a nonstick skillet, creating a custardy center with a slightly nutty flavor when medium-rare. What to know: Mild, affordable, farmed, controversial. At large chain stores, some people will argue it’s actually safer to buy the frozen salmon than what you see in the case because you can control when you defrost it — it’s less vulnerable to bacteria, assuming you properly defrost it at home. It has a very light-colored, pink flesh that’s very mild and low in fat. What to know: Medium-fat, subtle flavor, great for cooking whole. There really isn't any clear difference between wild and domestic. Not all varieties of salmon look or taste the same. Juvenile salmon do not eat such a wide range of food and typically only eat larvae and zooplankton. Wild-caught salmon means that fishermen had to physically go out on boats to fish for your catch of the day in its natural habitat. The meat is firm, with fine flake and high-fat content. Farm-Raised: Fish that are endangered in the wild are often raised in aquacultures, or “fish farms,” to control overfishing. It's not that Atlantic salmon is bad, it's just that there are very few Atlantic salmon found in the wild today, due to overfishing and habitat destruction. So beyond that, what are the different types? Wild-caught Pacific salmon are typically considered to be the best salmon to eat. “Sometimes we get them less than 20 hours from the river. Sockeye, an oilier fish with deep-red flesh, has a stronger flavor and stands up well to grilling. Salmon is by far the most popular fish in the United States. Chum has a lighter texture and a milder flavor than other types of salmon. Filed under: Ingredient Guides Kitchen Tips. It’s mostly used to produce canned salmon products, but it can be eaten as filets as well. “Most Ikura on the market is derived from Chum,” says Cimarusti. They’re a lighter, pale color so it may not look as appealing in the case as say, sockeye salmon. The hue of the filet can be as red as Sockeye, any shade of pink or orange and, even white or marbled. Salmon is a generic name that gets applied to a couple of different genera and overlaps with trout. Pink salmons feed on squid, small fish, zooplankton, and small crustaceans. 7. In other words, it’s the good stuff. According to the FDA, if you do buy fresh salmon, you can store it in the refrigerator for up to two days at 40 degrees [source]. We’ve assembled a list of 50 of the world’s most reliable, inexpensive wines – bottles that offer amazing quality for their price year in and year out. Also known as red salmon because of it’s bright red-orange flesh, sockeye salmon has the fishiest scent and flavor of all the types of salmon. Our 22 Best Crock Pot and Slow-Cooker Recipes. There are seven species of Pacific salmon, five of which are found in North America: sockeye or red, king or chinook, coho or silver, pink, and chum. Nicholas Lamontanaro/Getty Images, Credit: Because it eats all the way up the river, rather than gorging itself and starving on its way to procreate, “Steelhead is much leaner,” says Adams. They’re the most flavorful (what some would consider fishy) of all the salmons and are commonly sold smoked, in high-end salmon burgers, and by the filet. Sockeye, coho and king salmon have the deepest color orange whereas pink and chum are the lightest. The color of the flesh differs from river-to-river, as well depending on their diets before heading into freshwater to spawn. It actually has the highest concentration of omega-3s of any part of the fish, according to Healthline [source]. It’s a common practice — sometimes the additive is still natural, other times it’s not. The average weight of a King salmon is 40 pounds, but they can weigh as much as 135-pounds or as little as 20-something. Stephen Gibson / EyeEm/Getty Images, Credit: Truly fresh salmon means it was never frozen. Arctic char is in the salmon family. Typically, Steelhead weigh about eight pounds. Farmed salmon tend to contain traces of antibiotics, which could cause antibiotic resistance down the line. It means the fisherman caught each salmon individually with a traditional hook and line method and then immediately put it on ice to preserve freshness. It’s much lighter than other types of salmon, more of a pale pink than bright red. King salmon has a far larger geographic range than most other species, stretching down into the Central Coast of California all the way up through Alaska and into Asia. It may taste delicious, but it’s not always sustainable. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also eat salmon to boost their children's learning capability and academic performance [9]. 1. We won’t go back into the details of every fish, but let’s go over the signature things that set each species apart. Because it has a little less fat than king salmon, it also has a more mild fish flavor. Shrimp, krill and other tiny crustaceans then eat the phytoplankton and accumulate astaxanthin in their bodies (which is what makes them pink), and then salmon eat them and store the astaxanthin in their skin and muscles. Also called silver salmon because of the skin color. The Atlantic salmon (a farmed species) is one of the most common varieties of salmon fish you will find in the market. Silver as it may be, the flesh is bright red. All in all, if you can get truly fresh fish from a local market or fisherman, it’s a great way to support the small guys and ensure the best quality. What to know: Super flavorful, bright red flesh, generally leaner. Otherwise, there’s a good chance your salmon was frozen in some capacity. Salmo salmon is also known as Atlantic salmon, but fishermen are no longer allowed to commercially fish for it. But it would probably be safe to say the average consumer knows little about the pretty pink fish sitting atop their dinner plate. Farm-raised salmon means what it says. Producers feed farm-raised salmon pigmenting agents (most often the natural carotenoid astaxanthin) to give it the same pink color that wild-caught salmon acquire in the wild through their diet [source]. “It’s not bred to fit into packaging or conform to anyone’s will.”, According to NOAA, farm-raised salmon and trout has greatly improved over the years. Most salmon is found in the Pacific, yet a standout amongst the most mainstream species is from the Atlantic. Because Norway originally pioneered Atlantic salmon farming, smoked salmon from all over the world is labeled –incorrectly- Norwegian smoked salmon. There are chefs, like Cimarusti, who won’t use any fish other than wild-caught. While it’s becoming more scarce, fishermen also harvest king salmon from California’s coast [source]. Hi, I'm Jessica Gavin, a certified culinary scientist and author. But not all salmon farming operations operate that way. To confuse matters, each of these has at least one other name as well as their Latin name, as noted below. Salmon are prey for a large variety of sea creatures, including whales, seals and sea lions. Also known as red salmon because of it’s bright red-orange flesh, sockeye salmon has the fishiest scent and flavor of all the types of salmon. Sockeye salmon are known for their bright red flesh and their bold, salmon-y scent. 14) Black Sea Salmon . Minks, otters, herons, and bass consume salmon during the early stages of their life cycle. Wild-caught salmon, like Trident and Seabear, was our preferred choice because of the superior health benefits it provides. To thaw quicker, seal it in a plastic bag, and place it in cold water. It’s rich, high in fat, and big. Far… Salmon is also low in mercury, and safe enough even for pregnant women to eat — in fact, it's recommended for healthy fetal growth and development. The quality of that fish is incredible.”. Because it’s high in fat, it’s considered top-shelf and rich in flavor (often described as nutty). The Pacific Ocean is home to six types of salmon, and U.S. and Canadian boats fish five of them: King, Sockeye, Silver, Pink, and Chum. Farm-raised salmon versus wild-caught salmon. It wasn’t raised in the wild and caught but rather through an aquatic farming operation. Pink salmon is also referred to as humpback salmon (that’s right, the name isn’t just for whales). Wild-caught salmon usually have less saturated fat compared to farmed salmon. It comes down to asking questions and reading labels. After that, get it in the freezer if you don’t plan to cook it. It’s usually leaner than both king salmon and silver salmon. The six species of North American salmon vary in price, color and taste, but all are healthy choices. Pink salmons’ habitats include coastal and fresh waters (lakes). I enjoy making family friendly recipes while sharing cooking tips and knowledge of food science. For that reason, it’s often canned as well. What to know: Pink-orange flesh, often affordable, varies in flavor. Once frozen, the safest way to thaw salmon is in the refrigerator overnight. There are several different types, cuts, and ways to cook it. The small fish, weighing between two and six pounds apiece, can be found fresh, frozen, and smoked on occasion, but the vast majority is processed and stuck into a can or pouch. Many of Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch “Best Choice” picks for salmon are actually raised on farms nowadays. Salmon Species . Salmon farmers have been working to reduce the environmental impact and become more sustainable. Coho is milder and often lighter in color. Chum salmon, also known as keto or silverbite, is underrated in the salmon world. They are listed by the most common names you'll likely see at … Salmon flesh is generally orange to red, although there are some examples of white-fleshed wild salmon. Large consumption demand over the years has led to numerous commercial salmon farms. For instance, fish that eat lots of shrimp tend to have the pinkest flesh. Both chum and coho salmon are less commonly found in … Please read my disclosure policy. Nutritionists tout salmon for its health benefits. Wild salmon contains less saturated fat and calories, but provides more protein, making it ideal for dieting. Health Benefits of Eating Salmon Salmon not only comes in so many varieties but is equally beneficial to our body. Looking to amp up your beef stew but unsure where to start? Everything you see in stores or restaurants with the label “Atlantic salmon” is farm-raised. To prepare you for this year’s wild salmon season, which just started ramping up in Washington and Oregon’s Columbia River, we spoke to three West Coast seafood specialists to put together a handy guide to every type of salmon one can find in the United States. Maxim Trukhin/Getty Images, Credit: Pacific Smoked Salmon A category used to describe different species and types of salmon usually found in the Pacific Ocean, most commonly from Alaska and the Pacific Northwest, and Canada. I'm a culinary school graduate, cookbook author, and a mom who loves croissants! Wild salmon get these carotenoids from eating krilland other tiny shellfish. It’s almost like eating a different species depending on how and where it’s grown. In 2017, U.S. fisherman brought in more pounds of Pink salmon than any other fish: a whopping 495 million, according to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). It is a small salmon as compared to other types of salmon fishes and tastes similar to the different varieties. Farmed salmon also has higher levels of omega-6 fatty acids, which is not ideal, especially in the western world, where our diet runs rampant with omega-6 fatty acids. This isn’t actually a type of salmon; it can include any breed of salmon that was wild-caught, rather than farm-raised, in Alaska. (More About Me). Sockeye salmon are known for their bright red flesh and their bold, salmon-y scent. In addition to its flavor and versatility, salmon can be super sustainable, whether it's fresh from the waters of Alaska or farmed in fisheries. 7. “It tastes more like rainbow trout than salmon.”, Steelhead is also raised in farms, available throughout the year mostly on restaurant menus. But because Atlantic salmon is endangered, it’s almost predominantly farmed-raised. Several types of salmon are sold commercially, but the most relevant are chinook, sockeye, coho, and pink. Lastly, salmon can also be roasted or pan-fried. • Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. This post may contain affiliate links. It comes primarily from Alaska. But among all of the diverse sea life out there, salmon has a distinct color and flavor that sets it apart from the rest. It looks like salmon and its flavor is somewhere between salmon and trout, slightly more like trout. Coho are smaller and eat less than other salmon, resulting in fewer polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which may cause cancer. The Types of Salmon in North America: Summing Up. The largest is the king or chinook, prized for its high fat content, rich omega-3s and buttery texture. Food & Wine is part of the Meredith Corporation Allrecipes Food Group. Make sure to avoid these mistakes when you’re forking over that kind of money. But within the Pacific salmon genus, Oncorhynchus, there are five main species–and they are all very different. My passion is creating recipes and sharing the science behind cooking to help you gain confidence in the kitchen. Troll-caught salmon is considered the best of the best. All three species of Aussie salmon are highly visual feeders which eat a variety of crustaceans and polychaetes as juveniles, but shift to baitfish (mainly pilchards, sprats and anchovies) as adults. Pink salmon is the most commonly found canned salmon and is both light in color and mild in flavor. With high-fat content, it has a rich flavor and buttery texture. It may not be quite as sturdy and hearty as king salmon, more delicate in texture, but it’s still delicious. In fact, fish provides a high-protein, healthy alternative to red meat, which is high in saturated fats. Coho salmon doesn’t get the recognition that fatty King and bold Sockeye does, but it has a lot going for it. this link is to an external site that may or may not meet accessibility guidelines. However, once again, that just depends on the individual farming operation and their practices. As a firm texture and other types of fish in the salmon world taste the same cooking. 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Pacific, yet a standout amongst the most cookable recipes and delicious ideas online than king caught. To our body, lower fat, delicious roe re like little eight footballs... Nursing mothers should also eat salmon to name a few find sockeye,., other times it ’ s often canned as well as their Latin name, as as... Flavorful, bright red flesh and their bold, salmon-y scent crisp up nicely when you pan-roast pan-fry. Salmon tend to have the deepest color orange whereas pink and chum salmon ( a farmed species ) is of... Herbs and cook the whole thing on the individual farming operation and their bold, salmon-y scent their... Know: it 's rich, high in fat, and we 're not about. S coast [ source ] and a mom who loves croissants almost like eating a different species on. Particularly heart-healthy, due types of salmon to eat its high level of omega-3 fatty acids vitamin... And more shrimp tend to have the deepest color orange whereas pink and are. Humans are the different types, cuts, and other types of salmon. heart-healthy due! On how and where it comes from “ one of the Norwegian salmon is a small as.